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The Department of Environmental Economics and Management

The Robert H. Smith Faculty
of Agriculture, Food and Environment
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100
Fax: 08-9466267

Department Head:
Prof. Ayal Kimhi, Tel: 08-9489376

Head of the teaching program:

Dr. Iddo Kan, Tel: 08-9489233

Miri Arazi, Tel: 08-9489230


Bar-Nahum, Z. ; Finkelshtain, I. ; Ihle, R. ; Rubin, O. D. Effects of violent political conflict on the supply, demand and fragmentation of fresh food markets. 2020, 12, 503 - 515. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Violent political conflict has been documented to have comprehensive adverse effects on economic activity and, thus, substantially harm social welfare. As conflict escalations are often reported to fragment economic space, we suggest an empirical framework which allows for estimating changes in the size of markets often split by frontlines. This approach uses a differentiated goods oligopoly model to separate effects of conflict intensity on consumer demand, costs of trade, market size, and market structure. We combine daily sales of apples in Hebron - one of the focal points of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict - and variables quantifying complementary aspects of conflict intensity. Conflict is found to suppress demand and affect competition more significantly than it increases costs of trading. Simulations indicate a 15% reduction in total daily consumption during conflict of high intensity while a pacification would yield a 20% welfare gain. This empirical framework allows disentangling the effects of conflict on food markets. The results suggest that relief policies should consider alleviating effects of fragmentation of economic space, e.g., by ensuring humanitarian corridors.
Fishman, A. ; Finkelshtain, I. ; Simhon, A. ; Yacouel, N. Collective brands. International Journal of Industrial Organization 2018, 59, 316 - 339. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We analyze the effect of a shared brand name, such as geographically designated agricultural brands, on incentives of otherwise autonomous firms of the same type to establish a collective reputation for product quality. When firms of the same type share the same brand name, consumers have more observations of past quality and are able to predict quality with greater precision than if brands are private. This effect increases firms’ incentive to invest in quality. On the other hand, a shared brand name may motivate free riding on the group’s reputation, reducing incentives to invest. We identify conditions under which the former effect is dominant and leads to higher quality than stand alone firms can achieve.
Reznik, A. ; Feinerman, E. ; Finkelshtain, I. ; Fisher, F. ; Huber-Lee, A. ; Joyce, B. ; Kan, I. Economic implications of agricultural reuse of treated wastewater in Israel: A statewide long-term perspective. Ecological Economics 2017, 135, 222 - 233. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We develop an Israeli version of the Multi-Year Water Allocation System (MYWAS) mathematical programming model to conduct statewide, long-term analyses of three topics associated with agricultural reuse of wastewater. We find that: (1) enabling agricultural irrigation with treated wastewater significantly reduces the optimal capacity levels of seawater and brackish-water desalination over the simulated 3-decade period, and increases Israel's welfare by 3.3 billion USD in terms of present values; (2) a policy requiring desalination of treated wastewater pre-agricultural reuse, as a method to prevent long-run damage to the soil and groundwater, reduces welfare by 2.7 billion USD; hence, such a policy is warranted only if the avoided damages exceed this welfare loss; (3) desalination of treated wastewater in order to increase freshwater availability for agricultural irrigation is not optimal, since the costs overwhelm the generated agricultural benefits. We also find the results associated with these three topics to be sensitive to the natural recharge of Israel's freshwater aquifers, and to the rate at which domestic-water demand evolves due to population and income growth.
Reznik, A. ; Feinerman, E. ; Finkelshtain, I. ; Kan, I. ; Fisher, F. ; Huber-Lee, A. ; Joyce, B. The Cost of Covering Costs: A Nationwide Model for Water Pricing. Water Economics and Policy 2016, 02, 1650024. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This study offers a high-resolution model of nationwide water supply. The model is sufficiently detailed to represent all main water sources in an economy, the principal segments of the conveyance system, urban, industrial and agricultural demand regions, and various water types, including fresh, saline and recycled. Calibrated for Israeli 2010 data, we find that the optimal extraction of fresh water is only 2% larger than the total observed supply from those sources. However, for some specific sources, the deviation between optimal and observed quantities is significant. Assuming average constant recharge, the optimal aggregated desalination is 57% of the 2010 desalination capacity and only 33% of the present desalination capacity. Even with an assumed 40% decline in recharge (for example, due to climate change), the model uses only 50% of the present desalination capacity. This may suggest that the construction of desalination facilities in Israel, which began in 2005, could have been delayed. The model establishes a comprehensive system of pumping levies and user fees that support the optimal allocation. However, due to considerable scale economies, the average cost is almost 50% larger than the marginal cost. The implications are that the welfare cost of the recent Israeli Balanced Budget Water Economy legislation is more than 100 million USD per year, about 10% of the water economy share of the GDP.